Each of Vermont's 14 counties has a Superior Court made up of four separate divisions. The Civil Division is a trial court where civil matters such as breach of contract, eviction, foreclosure, personal injury, land disputes, medical malpractice and wrongful death cases are heard. Appeals from the Probate Division are also heard in the Civil Division. While the Civil Division is not designed for pro se litigants (people representing themselves in court cases), there is no rule against it. People appearing in the Civil Division are expected to be familiar with the Vermont Rules of Civil Procedure and with the Vermont Rules of Evidence. The geographic jurisdiction for the Civil Division is the county in which it is located.

The Civil Division also includes small claims cases, which are designed for people who don't have lawyers. In a small claims case, you can sue a person or business for up to $10,000. Consumer credit debt and medical debt are capped at $5,000 in small claims cases. 

U.S. Passport applications are processed at some Civil Divisions throughout the state, although not all provide that service.

Civil Mediation

Most civil cases require parties to attempt mediation unless waived by the court. Mediation provides an opportunity for parties to meet with a neutral person to try to reach an agreement without court involvement.

Debt & Collections

If someone has sued or threatened to sue you because you owe them money, you can visit the VTLawHelp website, which provides information about:

  • Debt and debt collections
  • Consumer rights
  • Credit and credit reports
  • Foreclosures and
  • Storage units

You may also qualify for free or lower cost legal help.

Eviction Process

Provides information about the eviction process for residential properties.


If a bank or other party starts a foreclosure case against you, talk to a lawyer right away.

Call Legal Services Vermont at 800-889-2047 or fill out the online form to see if you qualify for free or lower cost legal services.

Visit the VTLawHelp Foreclosure in Vermont web page for information about foreclosure. Their website also has information about:

Information for Consumers

The VTLawHelp website provides consumer-related information including:

  • Consumer rights
  • Credit and credit reports
  • Debt and debt collections
  • Foreclosures
  • Storage units

You can also see whether you qualify for free or reduced fee legal help.

The Consumer Assistance program (Office of Vermont Attorney General and University of Vermont) helps consumers and businesses.  

If you have a legal dispute with someone who sold you something you may consider filing a small claims case. The Suing and Being Sued - Small Claims web page provides information about the small claims process.

Small Claims

The small claims process is simple, informal, and inexpensive. Lawyers are allowed, but many people represent themselves.

In a small claims case, you can sue a person or business for up to $10,000. Consumer credit debt and medical debt are capped at $5,000 in small claims cases. 

Stalking and Sexual Assault

If someone has stalked or sexually assaulted you or your minor child (under the age of 16), you can file a request in the Civil Division of the Superior Court for an order to have them stop.

You can ask for an order against stalking or sexual assault from the civil division only if the other person is not a family member or someone you have ever lived with, and is not someone you have dated.

If the other person is a family member, is someone you have lived with, or is someone you have dated, you do not meet the requirements to ask for an order against stalking. You may qualify for a request for relief from abuse order, which is filed in the Family Division of the Superior Court. See the Relief from Abuse web page for more information about that process. 

Civil Discovery

The process parties use to find out about the strengths and weaknesses of the other side's case is called discovery. Each side may send written requests to each other asking for specific information which may be relevant to the case.

Notary Public

The Office of Professional Regulation (OPR) is responsible for receiving applications and commissioning notaries public. Visit the Vermont Secretary of State's website for more information. 

Responsibility for notaries public was transferred from county assistant judges to OPR pursuant to Act 160 of the 2017-2018 Legislative session.

Passports and Visas

Where to Get a Passport

In Person

Some, but not all, Vermont county courthouses process passport applications. Some post offices also process passport applications.



You may also complete the passport application process at: https://travel.state.gov/content/passports/en/passports.html


ID and Fees

To get a passport, you will need:

  • A certified copy of your birth certificate, which includes
    • A raised seal
    • A signature from the town clerk’s office
    • The date the certificate was filed with the town clerk
  • One passport photograph (some counties take passport photos), taken within the last six months

Use the fee calculator to figure out the cost of a passport. 

For information on speeding up the process or for any other questions, please contact your county court.


Visa Extensions

The US Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) is responsible for visa extensions

Immigration and Naturalization Service
St. Albans Office
64 Gricebrook Road
St. Albans, VT 05478

The national customer service number for the INS is 1-800-375-5283.


You can browse Civil Division opinions from 2002 - present in the Opinions and Decisions library.

Opinions are unofficial

The texts of civil division opinions are unofficial. They have been reformatted from the originals. The accuracy of the texts and any accompanying data is not guaranteed. This database is not exhaustive; it does not include all civil division opinions. At this time, no opinions from Vermont’s criminal and family divisions are included.


Take appropriate care to ensure that the opinions you read fit your purposes. You should also determine whether they have been reviewed by the Supreme Court.

To cite an opinion from the website

The following format is recommended for use in Vermont:

Fingerlakes Constr. Co., Inc. v. Fillmore Farms, LLC, No. 56-2-04 Bncv (Vt. Super. Ct. Aug. 3, 2005) (Carroll, J.), available at https://www.VermontJudiciary.org/TCDecisionCvl/2005-8-19-6.pdf


The Vermont Legislature sets most of the fees charged for services provided by the Judiciary. The Justices of the Supreme Court establish rules to govern the allowance of fees not specified by law. Motions or petitions filed by one party at one time shall be assessed one fee.


Landlord-Tenant forms

Small Claims forms

Orders Against Stalking or Sexual Assault forms



Asking to Waive Fees

See the Application to Waive Filing Fees and Service Costs web page for information and forms.


Starting a Civil Case



Service Options

The plaintiff must serve a blank Answer and a blank Notice of Appearance for Self-Represented Litigant on the defendant when the Summons and Complaint are served.





Answer & Counterclaim 






Discovery & Alternate Dispute Resolution





Collecting a Judgment





Change of Name or Mailing Address


Court Records


For Center for Crime Services Use