Each of Vermont's 14 counties has a Superior Court made up of four separate divisions. The Civil Division is a trial court where civil matters such as breach of contract, eviction, foreclosure, personal injury, land disputes, medical malpractice and wrongful death cases are heard. Appeals from the Probate Division are also heard in the Civil Division. While the Civil Division is not designed for pro se litigants (people representing themselves in court cases), there is no rule against it. People appearing in the Civil Division are expected to be familiar with the Vermont Rules of Civil Procedure and with the Vermont Rules of Evidence. The geographic jurisdiction for the Civil Division is the county in which it is located.

The Civil Division also includes Small Claims Court, which is designed for people representing themselves. Forms are provided in Small Claims Court. Cases asking for money up to $5,000 can be filed there.

U.S. Passport applications are processed at some Civil Divisions throughout the state, although not all provide that service.

Civil Mediation

Most civil cases require parties to attempt mediation unless waived by the court. Mediation provides an opportunity for parties to meet with a neutral person to try to reach an agreement without court involvement.

Debt & Collections

If someone has sued or threatened to sue you because you owe them money, you can visit the VTLawHelp website, which provides information about:

  • Debt and debt collections
  • Consumer rights
  • Credit and credit reports
  • Foreclosures and
  • Storage units

You may also qualify for free or lower cost legal help.


If a bank or other party files a foreclosure case against you, do not ignore it. Visit the VTLawHelp website or call 800-889-2047. You can find out if you qualify for free or lower cost legal services. The website also has helpful information about:

  • The foreclosure process
  • Foreclosure mediation to help you work with the bank to keep your house
  • Special rules if you have a loan from FHA, HUD, FmHA, or the VA
  • Other resources
Information for Consumers

The VTLawHelp website provides consumer-related information including:

  • Consumer rights
  • Credit and credit reports
  • Debt and debt collections
  • Foreclosures
  • Storage units

You can also see whether you qualify for free or reduced fee legal help.

If you have a dispute with a business, you may want to contact the Office of the Vermont Attorney General. You can find information on a variety of consumer-related topics on their website. 

If you have a legal dispute with someone who sold you something you may consider filing a small claims case. The Suing and Being Sued web page provides information about the small claims process.

Landlord & Tenant

This is basic and general information about evictions in most residential rentals. Some cities, like Burlington and Barre, have other laws you should know about. Rentals that are part of Section 8 or other state or federal subsidy programs also have additional requirements. Every case is different, and a lawyer can help you figure out what you need to know for your own case. Whether you are a landlord or a tenant, talking to a lawyer about your own case will help you make the best decisions. If you are a tenant, you may be eligible for free or low cost legal services. Whether you are a landlord or a tenant, you should read all the information on this page.

Small Claims

Small Claims Court handles cases involving claims of $5,000 or less. This site offers information about how to sue in small claims court, what to do if you are sued, how to prepare for a hearing, what to do in a hearing, how to appeal a small claims judgment, and how to collect a judgment if you do win your case in small claims court.

Stalking and Sexual Assault

If someone is stalking you, you can file a request in the Civil Division for an order to have them stop. You can get such an order in the civil division only if the other person is not a family member or someone you have ever lived with or dated. For family members, people you have lived with, or people you have dated, you must file a request in the Family Division.

Notary Public

Beginning Dec. 1, 2018, the Office of Professional Regulation (OPR) is responsible for receiving applications and commissioning notaries public. Responsibility transferred from the county assistant judges to OPR pursuant to Act 160 of the 2017-2018 Legislative session. For additional information on becoming a notary public, please refer to OPR’s website, which can be found here.

Passports and Visas

Where to Get a Passport

In Person

Some, but not all, Vermont county courthouses process passport applications. Some post offices also process passport applications.



You may also complete the passport application process at: https://travel.state.gov/content/passports/en/passports.html


ID and Fees

To get a passport, you will need:

  • A certified copy of your birth certificate, which includes
    • A raised seal
    • A signature from the town clerk’s office
    • The date the certificate was filed with the town clerk
  • One passport photograph (some counties take passport photos), taken within the last six months

Use the fee calculator to figure out the cost of a passport. 

For information on speeding up the process or for any other questions, please contact your county court.


Visa Extensions

The US Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) is responsible for visa extensions

Immigration and Naturalization Service
St. Albans Office
64 Gricebrook Road
St. Albans, VT 05478

The national customer service number for the INS is 1-800-375-5283.


You can browse Civil Division opinions from 2002 - present in the Opinions and Decisions library.

Opinions are unofficial

The texts of civil division opinions are unofficial. They have been reformatted from the originals. The accuracy of the texts and any accompanying data is not guaranteed. This database is not exhaustive; it does not include all civil division opinions. At this time, no opinions from Vermont’s criminal and family divisions are included.


Take appropriate care to ensure that the opinions you read fit your purposes. You should also determine whether they have been reviewed by the Supreme Court.

To cite an opinion from the website

The following format is recommended for use in Vermont:

Fingerlakes Constr. Co., Inc. v. Fillmore Farms, LLC, No. 56-2-04 Bncv (Vt. Super. Ct. Aug. 3, 2005) (Carroll, J.), available at https://www.VermontJudiciary.org/TCDecisionCvl/2005-8-19-6.pdf


The Vermont Legislature sets most of the fees charged for services provided by the Judiciary. The Justices of the Supreme Court establish rules to govern the allowance of fees not specified by law. Motions or petitions filed by one party at one time shall be assessed one fee.


Asking to Waive Fees

See the Application to Waive Filing Fees and Service Costs web page for information and forms.


Starting a Civil Case



Service Options

The plaintiff must serve a blank Answer and a blank Notice of Appearance for Self-Represented Litigant on the defendant when the Summons and Complaint are served.





Answer & Counterclaim 






Discovery & Alternate Dispute Resolution





Collecting a Judgment





Change of Name or Mailing Address


Court Records


For Center for Crime Services Use